This is the first 2 octave scale you should learn. It is the Minor Pentatonic Scale in position one. The circles with an R in the middle represent the root notes. So if you begin this scale at the fifth fret on the sixth string on your guitar it will be an A minor pentatonic scale. If the first note was on the sixth string at the 12th fret it would be an E minor pentatonic scale.
The vertical lines running down the diagram are the strings on your guitar with the thickest string on the left and the thinnest on the right.
The horizontal lines represent the frets on your guitar.
Each black dot is where you put your fingers.
This is a movable scale moving it to a different part of the fret board changes the key.